Post Selections Using Test Sets (PSUTS) and How Developmental Networks Avoid Them. (arXiv:2106.13233v1 [cs.LG])

This paper raises a rarely reported practice in Artificial Intelligence (AI)
called Post Selection Using Test Sets (PSUTS). Consequently, the popular
error-backprop methodology in deep learning lacks an acceptable generalization
power. All AI methods fall into two broad schools, connectionist and symbolic.
The PSUTS fall into two kinds, machine PSUTS and human PSUTS. The connectionist
school received criticisms for its “scruffiness” due to a huge number of
network parameters and now the worse machine PSUTS; but the seemingly “clean”
symbolic school seems more brittle because of a weaker generalization power
using human PSUTS. This paper formally defines what PSUTS is, analyzes why
error-backprop methods with random initial weights suffer from severe local
minima, why PSUTS violates well-established research ethics, and how every
paper that used PSUTS should have at least transparently reported PSUTS. For
improved transparency in future publications, this paper proposes a new
standard for performance evaluation of AI, called developmental errors for all
networks trained, along with Three Learning Conditions: (1) an incremental
learning architecture, (2) a training experience and (3) a limited amount of
computational resources. Developmental Networks avoid PSUTS and are not
“scruffy” because they drive Emergent Turing Machines and are optimal in the
sense of maximum-likelihood across lifetime.



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